Everything You Need to Know About Boyle’s Law

vewBoyle’s Law is a law that has helped many chemists to understand relations and more about gases. Richard Towneley and Henry Power were the first to put this law out into the world, and they had been noted using it. However, Robert Boyle officiated the law through series of experiments and documenting said experiments. He then published said observations in 1662, and they were largely accepted throughout the scientific world. Although Edme Mariotte went on to publish the same discovery in 1679, it was secondary to Boyle simply because Boyle had beat him to it. However, Mariotte was able to make this discovery free of any help from Boyle, but this just goes to show how important timing is in the scientific world. This is why it can occasionally be called the Boyle-Mariotte Law. Another very impressive part of this law and all things relating to it is the fact that it was the absolute first physical law to be shown through the form of an equation that describes the dependence of two different variable quantities.

Now that you have been properly filled in on

Quantum Physics Proves the Incredible Mind of the Spirit

sfaIt’s a new study in physics because not until the power of microscopes increased to the point where they could be seen did anyone even guess at the presence of atoms and genes. Fitting inside things that can be seen with the eye is another world of creation. Like the universe it comprises zillions of other particles that each connect and impact on one another. Inside each cell of the body is a long list of other elements that make up the chromosomes, and so on, but even that is not all.

As a student of genetics and quantum physics, micro-biology, and so forth, the fascination with how small the tiniest particles of life and matter are left me bewildered. When one considers that men developed a male Father god of three parts so that it can be manipulated and abused makes me sick to think about it. But even that is forgivable when they had not much to go on at the time. But it is no excuse now.

With the advance in science and the cameras in space showing us that we are living

A Fourth Helping Of Random Thoughts About Physics

vvaSometimes you have a new thought, an idea, or eureka moment, but it’s not gutsy enough to expand into a reasonable length article or essay. So, here’s my fourth pot-pourri of thoughts dealing with physics and related, too good not to record, but with not enough meat available to flesh out.

* You’ll often note mathematicians and physicists expressing descriptive words like beauty and elegance when describing some mathematical equation or something that’s symmetrical. Of course this just exhibits evidence that scientists are human. However, there really is no place for such emotive concepts in science. The equation is what it is; the symmetry is what it is; the laws, principles and relations of science are what they are. They are not beautiful; they are not ugly; they are what they are. Beauty and elegance and related concepts are in the mind of the beholder, and science truths are independent of the human mind.

* Superposition of states is just a mental concept that has no bearing on reality. It is a way of enabling us to come to terms with lack of certainty whether you’re

Parallel Vs Series Circuit

An electric circuit is formed when the electrons from a voltage or current source flow, but most circuits have more than one device that receives electric energy. Most of the devices in a circuit like a light bulb, resistor, or a capacitor are connected in one of two ways, series or parallel. When it’s connected in series, the devices form a single pathway for electron flow between the terminals. Then when it’s connected in parallel the wires form branches; this means that it separates the path for the flow of electrons. Parallel and series both have their own different way to connect and they are calculated using different formulas.

Series is an electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected along a single wire so that the same electric current flows through all of them. What this means for resistance is that it’s greater, because the electrons all go through the same path through the circuit. The way to find series is to find the total resistance by using the formula: Rt= R1+ R2+ R3. This means by using the different amount of resistance in the circuit then adding them together, so that the total resistance is calculated. Then since the

5 Questions to Ask Before Believing ALL You Read About Neuroscience

Neuroscience currently seems to be everywhere; every time you switch on the TV, in every newspaper article and, no doubt, somebody mentioned it in the canteen at work today.

The business world, originally a little slow in recognizing the potential of neuroscience to change the way organisations work, has recently been lapping up the findings of neuroscience to apply to everything from marketing to training methods.

But with neuroscience comes a lot of pseudoscience. Who do you believe and what information can we trust? It can be hard to tell the difference – because few (no) people reading this will be neuroscientists.

Here are five questions to ask before believing all you read/hear:

1. Who’s behind the research?

Take a look at the research cited and check if it stands up to scrutiny. This includes checking the name of the researcher and the organisation behind it. As a general rule, if it’s from a university or other scientific institution, it will have been peer-reviewed and can be trusted; likewise, if the lead researcher has published other peer-reviewed papers and been cited elsewhere, it usually passes the test.

2. What’s the reason for the research?

Why was the research conducted? Is there a hidden agenda or a vested

Random Number Generation

Random numbers are used in many places. The occurrence of sounds in nature, run time of buses between the same stops, travel time between home and office everyday, variable expenditure every month, predicting the face of a coin when tossed up, predicting the sum on two faces of a dice when cast. All of these phenomenon have a certain degree of randomness.

Random numbers are numbers generated in sequence which do cannot be predicted. For example if the equation of a variable is Y = 5 * X + 4 X can be completely predicted from Y. Random numbers occur between 0 and 1 and are perfectly normally distributed. For example when generated in large numbers random numbers occur equally between 0 and 1 along the Gaussian curve. That is between 0 and 0.1 there would be the same amount of numbers as between 0.8 and 0.9. Random numbers are required in simulation studies for example simulation of driving time between two destinations, simulation of a pair of dice, simulation of a. There are many different kinds of random number generators the most important is the linear congruential generator.

These numbers when generated have to satisfy many defined statistical tests for periodicity,

Playing “What If” Games With Higher Generation Particles

We are aware that for some totally unknown and unexplained reason, there are three generations of elementary particles * and thus presumably in theory there could be three generations of atoms, molecules, and related objects with structure and substance – like you and me **. However, there only seems to exist just the First Generation of atoms through to you and me and the rest of ordinary matter throughout the Cosmos. But, as a thought experiment, would you and me still be you and me if we were composed of Second or Third Generation particles?

But firstly, this raises an interesting question. Why isn’t there a Fourth Generation of particles? I mean if there is no rhyme or reason for there to be three generations, then why not four (or more)? That would subtract nothing in terms of the rhyme or reason already noted.

* The three generations of elementary particles are as follows:

First Generation with +2/3rds electric charge:
– Up Quarks
Second Generation with +2/3rds electric charge:
– Charm Quarks
Third Generation with +2/3rds electric charge:
– Top Quarks

First Generation with -1/3rd electric charge:
– Down Quarks
Second Generation with -1/3rd electric charge:
– Strange Quarks
Third Generation with -1/3rd electric

How to Break the Sound Barrier

Do you ever wonder how an airplane breaks the sound barrier? Do you ever wonder how sound barrier relates to sound waves? Interestingly enough, sound waves and the sound barrier is related in several different ways. In this article, we will take a look at the three different sound waves, and explain the sound barrier.

Just like the human eyes can detect light and color, our ears can detect sound. Sound is a wave that is created by several vibrating objects through a medium of one location to another. These waves are created when molecules bump into one another through the air. When these waves reach our ears, it causes our eardrums to vibrate. When your brain receives these sound waves, the brain automatically decodes the different vibrations into three categories such as voices, music, and noises.

As an example, let’s imagine a teacher using a tuning fork. A tuning fork is a metal object, which is typically used for tuning an instrument, or for this case, showing the waves. As the metal tines of the tuning fork vibrate back and forth, they begin to disturb the air molecules surrounding it. When the sound wave is moving through the air, as one

History and Importance of Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy

SICM, or Scanning ion conductance microscopy is a technique that uses probe methods as well as the increase in resistance that occurs when an electrolyte filled item is presented to a surface with poor ion conductance. Any increase in resistance can be examined before physical contact is made between the scanning probe tip and the sample at hand. The method is popular in investigation of the topography of fragile samples, particularly when it comes to examination living cells.

Scanning ion conductance has shown its worth in several different applications. This includes high-resolution as well as long-time span imaging for changes within cell volume as well as living cells. SICM has also been used in conjunction with varying methods to include fluorescence microscopy and patch clamping. Protein functions as well as proteins themselves can be examined perfectly this way.

Many feel that a combination of scanning ion conductance and ion selected micro-electrodes allows them to better watch any localized ion activity in relation to a living cell.


The microscope was invented in the 16th century. Used to study biological samples that can’t be examined by the naked eye they quickly became a valuable asset to every scientist. In 2016 there are two main microscopes

Measuring on the Nanoscale – A Whole New World in Materials Science

Measuring materials properly involves comparing the characteristics of test structures to the real internal properties of the materials at hand. If there are plenty of differences in the materials when examined on a nano scale using atomic force microscopy, then the fundamental understanding of structure-property relationships is easily strengthened.

Scientists who are skilled in the knowledge of the general principles of nano scale measures, as well as the various approaches to nanofabrication are able to research both nanostructure materials and interpret electrical measurements as well. Atomic force microscopy makes studying probe-sample interactions a breeze, and thankfully the continued improvement of these machines keeps them relevant. Not only that, but more techniques are being developed to further its worth. One example is that it’s not just used to measure characteristics, but also in detecting any material that is bothering a sample’s effectiveness.

The fact that atomic force microscopy uses both contact and noncontact methods of measurement helps scientists gather evidence that they couldn’t otherwise.


Recent studies of MEMS (microelectromechanical) and NEMS (nanoelectromechanical) systems enable those in the materials science industries to build more reliable devices. They are using ion-beam and laser machining, lithography and deep-ion etching on test specimens to name a

Sound Recording and Reproduction Through the Use of Electrical Currents

Before the digital age, analogue recording was the only option. Acoustic analogue recording is when a small microphone diagram that detects the changes in the atmospheric pressure, or acoustic sound waves. It is then recorded on phonograph, or a medium similar to it, in a representation of the sound waves. The reproduction of this sound is the reverse process. A bigger loudspeaker diaphragm is used to cause the changes to atmospheric pressure and forms sound waves. Analogue recording began in 1857, with a Parisian inventor Èdouard-Lèon Scott de Martinville. Èdouard-Lèon Scott de Martinville invented the phonautograph, which was a machine that could record sounds as they passed through the air, but couldn’t replay them. The phonautograph used a vibrating diaphragm and a stylus to trace sound waves on sheets of paper. The human voice was recorded for the first time by the phonautograph, the recordings were called “phonautograms”. Created in 1877 and patented in 1878, Thomas Edison invented the first practical sound recording and reproduction device, the mechanical phonograph cylinder. The mechanical phonograph cylinder engraved the recordings on the outside surface, then replays them on a mechanical cylinder phonograph. A type of Phonograph record is the Edison Diamond Disc Record,

How to Teach Young Kids Science in a Fun Manner

In order to maintain the interest in the subject and to keep the curiosity level of the student high enough to understand how things actually work, the practical nature of Science education must be ensured. It is important that experiments and projects be a mandatory part of science teaching, so that the subject remains entertaining enough to let the student enjoy it.

Science as a subject is very expansive and way too vast than what it seems from afar, just like an ocean. Since science is present in every-day life, students can be guided to observe the science behind daily things like working of the fan, observing sunsets, the cycle of time, the phenomenon of day and night, fluctuating temperatures etc. While observing little things like these followed by the factual explanation from the textbook makes a lot of shift in their minds about the understanding of the topic.

Another way to generate interest in science as a subject of study, is to share the uses of simple experiments beforehand to build up the curiosity for the student. This makes it easier for the student to relate to the concepts in real. In fact, after learning, initiatives can be taken to make

Scientific Paradigms And Universal Truths

Some have argued that existing scientific paradigms are pretty meaningless since they keep changing. I wouldn’t quite consider currently existing paradigms meaningless. We only exist in this brief era so whatever this era’s paradigms are helps us come to terms with this era’s version of reality, otherwise known as our current understanding of life, the Universe and everything. The same applied to those living in the pre-relativity / pre-quantum paradigm. The same applied pre-Newton. Ditto those existing in any pre-Copernican era. The same will apply for those trying to come to terms with reality decades, centuries, millennium from now.

Science isn’t about absolute truth (or ultimate answers), again, because what’s true today may be falsified tomorrow; paradigms change and evolve. Science appears to be rather about providing the best explanation possible in the here and now; a better explanation than that was provided yesterday; ideally providing an even better explanation tomorrow.

So science is an ever unfolding, ongoing, evolving an unveiling of reality, which is how I like to see science. Science can’t be a quest for the truth since what is considered true today can always be falsified at a later date. So IMHO science is just the quest to come

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions: What’s the Difference

Endothermic and exothermic may sound similar but are complete polar opposites of each other. Depending on what chemicals and or conditions are in a certain system, it will be either endothermic or exothermic. Although we may not think about it, endothermic and exothermic are always happening in our everyday lives.

Coming from the greek roots of “exo” meaning outside and “therm” meaning heat, exothermic reactions are reactions that release heat from its system into its immediate surroundings. When exothermic reactions occur, the immediate surroundings of the reactions gain energy becoming hot while the system itself loses energy becoming cold. This is the case because when the reaction occurs, heat is the product so if the system releases energy, so the immediate surrounding area will be hot. When exothermic reactions occur, the reactants yield the products plus heat. In an exothermic reactions the reactants have more energy that the products meaning the We see reactions that are exothermic in our everyday life, like something as obvious as a hot compression pad but there are many other everyday things we encounter. The flame of a candle is exothermic because the energy is being released into the immediate surrounding while the system loses energy.

Why Are Solutions to NCERT Science Textbooks So Popular?

NCERT solutions for NCERT science textbooks or literature books are very useful for helping students prepare effectively for CBSE exams. These are used as guide books by students who are making preparations for these tests. When it is the various branches of science, students need to grapple with different concepts, diagrams and labeling, engage in critical thinking, make logical deductions from different science theories and assumptions and these books are the perfect guides for students. New students are often perplexed at the overwhelming popularity of these solution books. Find out more by keeping your eyes glued to what follows next!

Easy and clear language

The answers given in these books are clear and easily understandable. The language is simple and straightforward, and can save a lot of time and energy for students in making preparations. The simplified solutions in books can clear all the doubts easily from the mind of students and make it easier for them to comprehend questions as well as how to understand them. Even those who are not too strong in language skills can understand the answers well, and not have to waste time.

Recurring solutions for NCERT Literature books

In each solution book for NCERT Literature books, such as

Gravitating With Isaac Newton’s Apple

Let us learn from one the most interesting anecdotes in science. It is a serious academic play and you will enjoy it, at the least.

Remember, Isaac Newton was sitting under the apple tree in his father’s farm, escaping from the plague in the city of London, where he was studying. He was barely 12 years old! Then the unexpected happened. Was it really the unexpected?! Anyway, whatever, it happened!

One of the fruits of the tree, an apple, fell and hit him on the head, before dropping to the ground, I guess. There was no evidence to support the apple hitting him on the head, anyway. That is no issue here. It fell; he saw it and the experience inspired something really great.

Isaac Newton discovered the force and the law of gravitation many years after the apple experience. There are three stages to this interesting and inspirational narrative: “before the fall”, “during the fall” and “after the fall”.

Before The Fall

Needless bothering ourselves with the processes that made the fruit grew from the tree; photosynthesis, absorption, osmosis to just name. Now, it must ripen and be ready to be eaten! That process, as well as the others mentioned is biological.

There are two

The Toxicity of Cyanide

Cyanide (CN) is a chemical group that contains one atom of carbon connected by three molecular bonds to one atom of nitrogen. It can exist as a gas, liquid, or solid. There are many compounds that include cyanide, such as the well-known hydrogen cyanide (HCN), which is a volatile liquid that boils at 25.6 degrees Celsius. HCN is a pale blue or a colorless liquid, but once it reaches its boiling point, it becomes a colorless gas. Cyanide can be found in natural surroundings and in industrial areas. Bacteria, fungi, algae, and over 1,000 plants produce the chemical. Industrially, Cyanide can also be found in cigarette smoke, car exhaust, soil from industrial processes, and factories that make plastic, paper, jewelry, or textiles. A small amount is enough to kill a full-grown human.

Cyanide toxicity is a form of poisoning that can affect humans and animals through inhalation, touching, or ingesting the substance. The toxicity is dependent on the environment in which the person or animal is exposed within and an individual’s reaction to the compound. Due to this, Cyanide has a 50% probability of being deadly to an exposed population. This varied response is not true once the chemical enters the

Static Guard

Static Guard and How It Works

Static electricity is a kind of electricity that stays in one place. Static can build up on things that do not conduct electricity very well such as rubber and plastics. Coming in contact with static by providing a discharge of current from your body can be very uncomfortable. There are products which can eliminate or reduce static electricity in order to avoid a nasty shock. The product Static Guard is a chemical method used to eliminate static electricity. The spray is made up of a conducting polymer (plastic) and a solvent made from deionized water and alcohol. You spray the product on a surface like a dress or a sweater, and when it evaporates, it leaves behind a conducting “skin” on the surface of the object that prevents static build up. As the conducting layer is left on the surface of an object that has been sprayed, static electricity cannot build up on the object and, therefore, you do not have to worry about shocking yourself. Static electricity has no way to release the energy that builds up so it does not move until it is touched by something which can conduct the electricity. An

The 5 States of Matter of the World

There is a misconception that there are only three States of Matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Well I’m trying to break that misconception because there are really five States of Matter and they are solid, liquid, gas, PLASMA, and BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES (BEC).

The First State of Matter is Solid. In a solid, particles are compiled very tightly together so they can not move around a lot. Most of the time the particles in a solid move only the slightest amounts and they have a very low kinetic energy. The reason the particles move is because the electrons of each atom are in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are in a fixed position. Solids also have a definite or fixed shape. They do not change shapes when they are put in containers. Also they have a definite volume. The solid particles are so tightly packed together that increasing pressure will not compress the solid to a smaller volume.

The liquid particles of a substance have more kinetic energy that the particles of a solid. The liquid particles are held in an irregular arrangement, but they are very close to each other to they have a definite volume like

Energy in Chemical Reactions

A chemical reaction happens when two different elements or substances interact to form a new substance with a different chemical composition. Along with every chemical reaction, comes a change in energy, where that energy is either gained or lost. Energy is the capacity of an object to do work or supply heat. Within the chemical bonds of substances there is chemical potential energy. The way atoms are arranged within a substance determines the amount of chemical potential energy a substance has. When a substance undergoes a chemical change, its energy changes. This change in energy can be observed in different ways. Oftentimes, a change in energy also results in a change of heat, with the heat flowing from a warmer object to a cooler one. Sometimes a change of energy, during chemical changes, causes a release of light or sound as well as well. For example the chemicals in fireworks produce light and sound.

A chemical change that gains energy is called an endothermic reaction. An endothermic reaction happens when an object absorbs heat from its surroundings during a chemical reaction. An example of an endothermic reaction would be melting ice. The ice absorbs heat, causing it to liquefy and